DORIS - IST WIFE OF HEROD?
In 43 BC, following the chaos caused by Antipater offering financial support to Caesar's murderers,
Antipater was poisoned. Herod, backed by the Roman Army, executed his father's murderer. Afterwards, Antigonus, Hyrcanus' nephew, tried to take the throne from his uncle. Herod defeated him and then married
his teenage niece, Mariamne (known as Mariamne I), which helped to secure him a claim to the throne and gain some Jewish
favor. However, Herod already had a wife, Doris, and a three-year-old son, Antipater
III, and chose to banish Doris and her child.
Doris was a sea nymph in Greek mythology, whose name represented the bounty of the sea. She was the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, and the wife of Nereus. She was mother to the fifty Nereids, including Thetis and Amphitrite.
Geography and history
SEE LINK FOR DORIS
The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα,
dodeka, "twelve" + θεον, theon, "of the gods"), in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. The classical scheme of the Twelve Olympians (the Canonical Twelve of art and poetry) comprises
the following gods: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia. The respective Roman scheme comprises the following gods: Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Ceres, Mars, Mercury, Vulcan, Venus, Minerva, Apollo, Diana and Vesta.
There was, however, a great deal of fluidity when it came to who was counted among their number
in antiquity; other important gods are sometimes included by certain sources in the group of Twelve replacing some of the above Canonical
12. The first ancient reference of religious ceremonies for the 12 Olympians is found in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. Around 400 BC Herodorus included in his Dodekatheon the following deities: Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Athena, Hermes, Apollo,
Alpheus, Cronus, Rhea and the Charites. Wilamowitz agrees with Herodorus' version of the 12.
There were also numerous regional variations in ancient Greece. For instance, at Kos, Ares
and Hephaestus are left behind, replaced by Heracles and Dionysus. Herodotus agrees with this and counts Heracles as one of the Twelve, while Lucian adds Asklepios to Heracles as a member of the Twelve, without explaining which two had to give way for them.
Pindar and Apollodorus, however, disagree with this. For them, and Herodorus as well, Heracles is not one of the Twelve Gods, but the one who established their cult. Plato connected the Twelve Olympians with the twelve months, and proposed that the final month be devoted
to rites in honor of Pluto and the spirits of the dead, implying that he considered Hades, one of the basic chthonic deities, to be one of the Twelve. Hades is phased out in later groupings due to his chthonic associations. In Phaedrus Plato aligns the Twelve with the Zodiac and would exclude Hestia from their rank. Hestia is sometimes displaced by Dionysus. Hebe, Helios and Persephone are other important gods, goddesses, which are sometimes included in a group of twelve. Persephone,
daughter of Demeter, was forced to spend 3 months a year in the underworld. During this time, Demeter withheld her graces
and caused the barren landscape of winter, until her daughter returned to Mount Olympus.
The Twelve Olympians gained their supremacy in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings
to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia were siblings; all the other of the Dodekatheon
are usually considered the children of Zeus by various mothers, except for Athena, who in some versions of the myth was born
of Zeus alone, and Aphrodite who was formed from the castrated phallus of the primordial sky which Cronos threw into the sea
when he freed the Titans. Additionally, some versions of the myth state that Hephaestus was born of Hera alone as Hera's revenge
for Zeus' solo birth of Athena.
Enter subhead content here